Plan of veterinary and sanitary measures
Preventive measures have two directions: general and special measures. They are included in the plan of preventive animal epidemic countermeasures drawn up for calendar year in all farms.
The following measures are being implemented:
1. For livestock protection from introduction of infectious and parasitic diseases:
- control of compliance with regime of a closed enterprise; -
construction of isolators and disinfection barriers
; - quarantine of introduced animals (21 days);
- special transport for feed, corpses, etc.;
- veterinary control of disposal of corpses, disinfection of manure;
- disinfection, deratization, disinsection.
2. Veterinary measures:
- newly arrived animals, kept in quarantine for 21 days, must be tested for tuberculosis, young animals - from two months of age, adult livestock - once a year in all peasant (farm) households, in the private sector;
- sheep and goats are examined for brucellosis one to two months after lambing, young animals - starting from three to four months of age. If spontaneous abortions have occurred in a safe herd, then the aborted fetus is sent to veterinary laboratory, at the same time blood serum is sent from the aborted animal and again after 15-20 days;
- for paratuberculosis, animals are examined only from dysfunctional farms;
- preventive vaccinations are planned against the following diseases:
- anthrax - immunize all susceptible livestock from three months, 2 times a year (second and fourth quarters);
- blackleg: sheep - over six months in the first quarter (no later than two weeks before pasture). If grazing period is longer than six months, revaccination is required;
- diplococcosis: lambs - during the year from eight days of age (calves - up to two or three, piglets and lambs - up to two months);
- foot and mouth disease - within two years after release of quarantine, according to the instructions of Veterinary Directorate or Territory, based on epidemic situation;
trichophytosis - all livestock from one month of age, twice with an interval of 10-14 days;
- rabies – all dogs older than three months (first-second quarters).
For other bacterial and viral diseases, measures are planned only if there is a disease on the farm on the day the plan is drawn up. It is very important to keep all newly arriving animals in quarantine for 21 days, presence of accompanying veterinary documentation for such animals is mandatory. During this period, all necessary studies are carried out for presence of infectious diseases.
The timing of deworming is usually recommended by the Veterinary Departments for each area. In the Karaganda oblast and nearby oblasts, the timing of deworming is as follows:
- against dictyocaulosis: 20 days before grazing, selectively examine, repeat the survey in July, August and autumn up to 10% of the livestock. If found - deworming - March (first quarter) and October-November (fourth quarter);
- against fascioliasis: 30 days after stabling (fourth quarter), then after three months (first quarter);
- against monieziasis of sheep and goats: lambs - 14-16 days after pasture, repeat after 15-20 days, then 25-30 days after the second, i.e. approximately May, June, July (second and third quarters), adults - in late June-early July, and then - all livestock - in September-October (third quarter);
- against thysaniezia - third and first quarter;
- against avitellinosis - young animals of the current year of birth at the end of May (second quarter), the second time - in September (third quarter), third time - in December (fourth quarter), adults - April-May and November-December (third and fourth quarters);
- against hemonchosis, trichostrongylosis - two weeks before grazing, in the fall (second and fourth quarters);
- against scabies and ectoparasites of sheep - after shearing (May-June), September;
- against cestodosis in dogs - March (first quarter), June (second quarter), September (third quarter), December (fourth quarter).
Therapeutic treatments against all parasites are not planned, but carried out at any time.
Basics of disinfection, disinsection, deratization
The breeder must pay special attention to regular disinfection, disinsection and deratization. These measures prevent infection of animals with worms, bacteria, and viruses. The agents used for this purpose operate at a certain temperature, concentration, and exposure time.
This methodological manual already indicates the basic means that are used for disinfection in farms, for example, a 3% hot alkali solution; 3% creolin and lysol; 5% chloramine solution.
Preventive disinfection is carried out at least 2 times a year: the first time - in the spring after the start of the grazing season, the second - in the fall before wintering.
In enterprises that are engaged in beef cattle breeding, preventive disinfection is carried out each time the cattle are sent to slaughterhouses.
In maternity areas – once a month. Cells for newborns are treated each time before and after their use. Preventive disinfection is also carried out after animal epidemic countermeasures (vaccinations, blood sampling for tests, etc.). Before disinfection, a thorough cleaning is carried out with the removal of garbage, feed residues, and manure.
For planning the work in general, it is important to take into account the sanitary periods - the time the premises are left without animals (before or after disinfection).
Equipment and basic means for disinfection:
- special clothing: glasses, masks, rubber boots, aprons, respirators or gas masks;
- industrial sprayers;
- cleaning tools, buckets, measuring containers, stock of brushes, rags;
- preparations: formalin, formaldehyde, fresh lime, caustic potassium, caustic sodium, carbolic acid, sulfuric-carbolic mixture.
When developing sections of the plan, the following will be determined:
4. Types of planned events.
5. The amount of work to be done.
6. The optimal timing of the events.